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English Phrasal Verbs to Japanese Dictionary


Phrasal verbs can sometimes be challenging and hard to find in English-Japanese dictionaries, if they are listed at all. Here you should be able to find most of the common ones used every day.

Each phrasal verb will be followed by vi (intransitive verb, not taking a direct object) or vt (transitive verb, taking a direct object), a short definition for clarification if needed, the Japanese equivalent, and an example sentence in Japanese along with its English translation.

Please keep in mind that this is not meant to be comprehensive. In many cases there are other Japanese words which can be used instead. However, the ones listed here are those which I feel are the most preferred. Please cross-reference using other dictionaries in order to get a good feel for the total scope of each word or phrase. Also, please remember that not all English verb forms will translate into a Japanese verb form. Sometimes the commonly used Japanese equivalent will be an auxiliary or something else entirely.

Example sentences will use a wide variety of verb conjugations. Please use my Japanese Verbs as a guide for these. While I have taken care to choose examples which translate over in a straightforward manner, there are some that are not a perfectly literal match. They will be, however, close enough to convey the meaning shown while being commonly used in both languages. Even though Japanese tends to prefer passive structures much more than English, I have kept some active simply to keep the structure true to the English in order to be more easily understood.

© Tim R. Matheson


Contents

be | blow | call | catch | cheer | come | cut | drop | fill | get | go | hang | keep | look | make | put | show | take | tell | turn | wear | work | write


be about to 1 vt (to be on the verge of doing) ...tokoro: Ima kara yuushoku o taberu tokoro. (I'm just about to eat dinner.)

be up to 1 vt (to be doing) shite iru: Kimiko wa nani o shite iru ka na? (I wonder what Kimiko is up to.) 2 vt (to be planning to do, often something devious) takuramu: Ano futari wa kitto nanika takurande iru. (Those two are surely up to something.) 3 vt (to feel like doing) ...ki ga aru: Kouen made aruku ki ga aru? (Are you up to a walk to the park?)

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blow away 1 vt fukitobasu: Kaze wa kare no boushi o fukitobashita. (The wind blew his hat away.) 2 vt (to surprise) odorokasu: Sore o itte mina odorokashita. (I said that and blew everyone away.)

blow out 1 vt (to extinguish) fukikesu: Rousoku o fukikeshite ne. (Blow out the candles, okay?) 2 vi (for a tire to blow out) panku suru: Jitensha no taiya ga panku shita yo. (The bicycle tire blew out.)

Note: Panku is borrowed from the English "puncture." It's wasei eigo, or "Japanese English." The English word "tire" is used as-is in Japanese. It is usually written in katakana; taiya is the direct romaji rendering from that.

blow over 1 vt fukitaosu: Kaze wa sanbon no denchuu o fukitaoshita. (The wind blew over three telephone poles.) 2 vi (to die away) toorisugiru: Kono arashi ga toorisugiru made matsu shika nai. (All we can do is wait for this storm to blow over.)

blow up 1 vi (to explode) bakuhatsu suru: Kyonen, kouba no tanku ga bakuhatsu shimashita. (A tank at the factory blew up last year.)

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call off 1 vt (to cancel) chuushi suru: Asu ame ga futtara, yama e no haikingu o chuushi suru. (If it rains tomorrow I'm going to call off the hike in the mountains.)

call on 1 vt (to visit) houmon suru: Kurashiki ni itta toki yuujin o houmon shita. (I called on a friend when I went to Kurashiki.)

call out 1 vt yobidasu: O-namae o yobidashitara, kountaa ni kite kudasai. (When I call out your name please come to the counter.)

call up 1 vt denwa suru: Karen ni denwa shita no? (Did you call up Karen?)

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catch it 1 vi (to be scolded) shikarareru: Yameta hou ga ii. Shikarareru yo. (You better not do it. You'll catch it.)

Note: The base, transitive verb for "to scold" is shikaru; shikarareru is its passive or intransitive form. For more about this form see this section of my verbs supplement.

catch on 1 vi (to understand) rikai suru: Sono uchi rikai suru. (You'll catch on in time.)

catch up 1 vi oitsuku: Saki ni itte. Oitsuku kara. (Go ahead. I'll catch up.)

Note: As in the last example above, there are words used in Japanese simply for "colloquial smoothing," which would usually not be used in the English counterpart. These can easily cause confusion. The literal translation of oitsuku kara would be "because I'll catch up," but that would sound unnatural in English. Oitsuku alone would sound equally as odd in Japanese, so kara would naturally be added. Kara, ga, ne, and yo are just some of the Japanese words that are often added for feeling but do not have an equal counterpart in English.

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cheer up 1 vi (to show renewed spirit or energy) genki o dasu: Genki o dashite ne. (Cheer up, okay?) 2 vt (to cause someone to show renewed spirit or energy; to cheer someone up) genki zukeru: Kanojo wa shibaraku no aida kare ni hanashite genki zukete kureta. (She was nice enough to talk to him for a while and cheer him up.)

cheer on 1 vt ouen suru: Ouen shimasu yo. (I'll be cheering for you.)

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come across 1 vi (to give an impression) inshou o ataeru: Kare wa totemo majime na hito da to iu inshou o ataeru. (He comes across as being a very sober person.) 2 vt (to find) mitsukeru: Souko no naka ni totemo furui hon o mitsuketa. (I came across a very old book in the storage shed.)

Note: When something is found which was intentionally searched for, the intransitive verb mitsukaru is usually used: Mitsukatta! (I found it!)

come after 1 vt (to follow) ...no ato ni kuru: Daitai tsuyoi kaze ga ame no ato ni kuru. (Usually strong winds come after the rain.) 2 vt (to come to get) tori ni kuru: Kanojo wa mou sugu kasa o tori ni kuru deshou. (She will surely come after her umbrella soon.)

come again 1 vi mata kuru: Mata kite kudasai. (Please come again.)

come along 1 vi (to accompany) tsuite kuru: Yokereba tsuite kite. (Come along if you like.) 2 vi (to progress) susumu: Yoku susunde imasu ne. (It's coming along quite nicely, isn't it?)

come and go 1 vi ittari kitari suru: Benchi ni suwatte, hito ga ittari kitari suru koto o miru no ga suki. (I like sitting on a bench and watching the people come and go.)

come apart 1 vi barabara ni naru: Denwaki ga katte ni barabara ni natta. (The telephone came apart on its own.)

come around 1 vi mawatte kuru: Maitoshi kono jiki ni tsubame ga mawatte kuru. (Every year about this time the swallows come around.)

come back 1 vi (to return) kaette kuru: Nanji goro kaette kuru deshou? (About what time will you come back?) 2 vt (to be remembered) omoidasareru: Chotto matte. Chotto shitara omoidasareru deshou. (Just a minute. It'll probably come back to me in a bit.)

come from 1 vt ...kara kuru: Doko kara kimashita ka. (Where did you come from?)

come in 1 vi / vt hairu: Douzo, haitte kudasai. (Please come in.)

come in handy 1 vi yaku ni tatsu: Denshi jisho o kattara yaku ni tatsu ni chigainai. (If you buy an electronic dictionary it will surely come in handy.)

come close to 1 vt (to approach) ...ni chikazuku: Ippiki no saru ga boku ni chikazuita. (One of the monkeys came close to me.) 2 vt (to just miss an occurrence) ...tokoro: Hikouki ni noriokureru tokoro datta! (I came close to missing my plane!)

come off 1 vi hazureru: Jitensha no cheen ga hazureta. (My bicycle chain came off.)

come on 1 vi (used to hurry someone up) isogu: Isoginasai! (Come on! Hurry!) 2 vi (for lights or electrical appliances to start working) tsuku: Denki ga mou sugu tsuku deshou. (The lights will probably come on in a minute.)

come out 1 vi dete kuru: Sakuban nezumi ga kurozetto kara dete kita. (Last night a mouse came out of the closet.)

come over 1 vi kuru: Watashi wa shichiji han goro kuru. (I'll come over around 7:30.)

come to 1 vt (to result in) ...ni naru: Kesshite konna koto ni naru to omowanakatta. (I never thought it would come to this.) 2 vt (to total in money) ...ni naru: Go hyaku juugo en ni narimasu. (That comes to 515 yen.)

come up 1 vi (to rise) agaru: Douzo, agatte kudasai. (Please come up. [Please come in.]) 2 vi (to happen) okoru: Ano mondai ga okoru made, raku na ichi nichi ni narisou datta. (Until that problem came up, it looked like it was going to be an easy day.)

Note: Since the inside of Japanese houses are traditionally much higher than the outside, you are literally asked to "rise up" when asked to come in.

come up against 1 vt butsukaru: Ritsuko wa Hawaii de hatarakihajimeta toki, iroiro na mondai ni butsukatta. (Ritsuko came up against various problems when she began working in Hawaii.)

come up with 1 vt (to suggest) teian suru: Kono mondai o kaiketsu suru tame, ii houhou o teian suru koto ga dekinai ka. (Can't you come up with a good way to solve this problem?)

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cut corners 1 vi (to make tasks easier; to not do a task completely) te o nuku: Kare wa itsumo te o nuite iru. (He is always cutting corners.)

cut down 1 vt (to cut down a tree) kiritaosu: Kare wa niwa ni atta furui matsu no ki o kiritaoshita. (He cut down that old pine tree that was in his yard.) 2 vt (to decrease) herasu: Shuppi o herasanai to ikenai. (We've got to cut down our spending.)

cut off 1 vt (to interrupt) chuudan suru: Chuudan shinaide kudasai. (Please don't interrupt.) 2 vt (to discontinue service) tomeru: Karera wa gasu dai o harawanakatta node, tomerareta. (They didn't pay their gas bill, so it was cut off.) 3 vt (to hang up and end a telephone call) denwa o kiru: Watashi no kyuuka ni tsuite hanasou to omotta kedo, kanojo wa denwa o kitta. (I was going to tell her about my vacation, but she cut me off.)

cut out 1 vi (for a machine to stop) kyuu ni tomaru: Enjin ga kyuu ni tomatta. (The engine just cut out.) 2 vt (to make a way through) kirihiraku: Karera wa kawa made no michi o kirihiraita. (They cut out a path to the river.)

cut out for 1 vt (to be good at) muite iru: Boku wa sou iu seikatsu ni muite inai. (I'm not cut out for that kind of life.)

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drop by / drop in 1 vt tachiyoru: Mise ni iku tochuu, Sachiko no ie ni tachiyorimashou ne. (Let's drop by Sachiko's place on the way to the store, okay?)

drop off 1 vt orosu: Yuubinkyoku no mae ni oroshite kudasai. (Please drop me off in front of the post office.)

drop out 1 vi (to quit school) taigaku suru: Kare wa juugo sai de taigaku shita. (He dropped out of school when he was 15.)

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fill in 1 vt (to write information) kinyuu suru: Kono moushikomisho o kinyuu shite kudasai. (Please fill in this application.) 2 vt (to inform) oshieru: Kinou no kaigi no naiyou ni tsuite oshiete ageru. (I'll fill you in on what we talked about in yesterday's meeting.) 3 vi (to substitute for) ...no kawari ni suru: Kyou wa, Ishii-san no kawari ni shimasu. (Today I will fill in for Ms. Ishii.)

fill out 1 vt (to write information) kinyuu suru (see fill in above) 2 vi (to gain weight or fullness) yutaka ni naru: Kyonen made wa inu no ke ga sukunakatta ga, daibun yutaka ni natta. (Up until last year our dog's coat was scanty, but it has filled out pretty well.)

fill up 1 vt (to fill a container) ippai ni suru: Kappu o ue made ippai ni shite choudai. (Please fill the cup up all the way.) 2 vt (to fill a hole) umeru: Inu ga hotta ana o umete kureru? (Would you please fill up the hole that the dog dug?)

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get across 1 vt (to cross a road, river, etc.) wataru: Kare wa booto de mizuumi o watatta. (He used a boat to get across the lake.) 2 vt (to make something understood) rikai saseru: Yatto boku no gakusei ni ano suugaku no mondai no kaiketsuhou o rikai saseta. (I finally got the solution to that math problem across to my students.)

Note: Rikai suru is the plain form for "to comprehend." For more about saseru and other "action causing" forms, see Lesson 16 of my Japanese Verbs.

get after 1 vt (to nag) shitsukoku iu: Obaa-chan wa itsumo shukudai o suru you ni shitsukoku itte iru. (Grandma's always getting after me to do my homework.) 2 vt (to scold) shikaru: Bill wa gakkou ni okurete kita node, sensei ni shikarareta. (The teacher got after Bill for coming to school late.)

get ahead 1 vi (to make progress) susumu: Nihongo no benkyou wa, sukoshi zutsu susunde imasu. (As far as my Japanese studies are concerned, I'm getting ahead little by little.)

get along 1 vi (to exist together well) nakayoku yatte iku: Karera wa nakayoku yatte itte iru. (They are getting along well together.)

Note: This is often expressed with the adjective form naka ga ii: Karera wa naka ga ii.

get around 1 vi (to spread) hiromaru: Sono uwasa ga hayaku hiromatta. (That rumor got around quickly.)

get away 1 vi nigeru: Kanojo wa ano iya na shigoto kara nigeru koto ga dekita. (She was able to get away from that wretched job.)

get back 1 vi (to return) modoru: Goji made ni modorimasu. (I'll get back by 5:00.) 2 vt (to take back) torimodosu: Kenji no ie ni itte, watashi no jisho o torimodosu. (I'm going to Kenji's to get back my dictionary.) 3 vi (to step back) ushiro e sagaru: Keikan wa 'ushiro e sagarinasai!' to sakenda. (The police officer shouted 'Get back!') 4 vi (to reply later) (ato de) henji suru: Asu no gozenchuu henji shimasu. (I'll get back to you sometime tomorrow morning.)

get behind 1 vi (to be slower than planned) okureru: Zannen nagara, boku wa yotei yori okurete kita. (Unfortunately, I have gotten behind schedule.) 2 vt (to move back behind something) ...no ushiro ni sagaru: Kiiroi sen no ushiro ni sagatte kudasai. (Please get behind the yellow line.) 3 vt (to support a person or idea) shiji suru: Suzuki san no an o shiji shimashou. (Let's get behind Suzuki's proposal.)

get by 1 vi (to make do) nantoka kurashite iku: Kibishikatta kedo, Tokyo ni sunde ita toki nantoka kurashite iku koto ga dekita. (It was tough, but we were able to get by when we lived in Tokyo.)

get down 1 vi (to move from an elevated location to a lower or normal one) oriru: Ojii-chan wa hitori de kaidan o oriru koto ga dekinakunatta. (Grandpa can't get down the steps by himself anymore.) 2 vt (to swallow) nomikomu: Ano shokuji wa mazukatta! Nomikomenakatta yo! (That food was awful! I couldn't get it down!)

get home 1 vi (to return home) ie ni kaeru: Kinou no yoru no juuichiji han goro ie ni kaetta. (I got home last night at around 11:30.)

get in 1 vi / vt (to enter into) hairu: Kagi o wasureta node hairenakatta. (I forgot the key so I couldn't get in.)

get it 1 vi (to understand) rikai suru: Nankai mo setsumei shita ga, kanojo wa rikai dekinai. (I explained it again and again, but she cannot get it.)

get off 1 vt (to get out of a train, bus, etc.; to get off of a bicycle, table, or object higher than the floor or ground) oriru: Takamatsu eki de orite kudasai. (Get off at Takamatsu Station.)

get on 1 vt (to get into a train, bus, etc.; to get onto an object higher than the floor or ground.) noru: Hayaku! Densha ni norinasai! (Hurry up! Get on the train!)

get out 1 vi / vt (to leave a room or other enclosed area) deru: Dete mo ii? (Can I go out?) 2 vi (to esape) nigeru: Inu ga nigeta. Issho ni sagashimashou. (The dog got out. Let's look for him together.) 3 vi (to go out for entertainment) asobi ni dekakeru: Konogoro amari asobi ni dekakenai. (We don't get out very often these days.)

get over 1 vt (to climb over a physical obstacle; to get through a difficult period) norikoeru: Taihen na jiki deshita ga, yatto norikoemashita. (It was a difficult time, but I've finally gotten over it.)

get through 1 vi / vt (to pass through a physical area) toorinukeru: Ano mori o toorinukeru no ni, itsuka kan kakatta. (It took five days to get through that forest.) 2 vi (to make contact with someone) tsuujiru: Nankai mo denwa shite mita ga, sanji goro yatto tsuujita. (I called many times, and finally got through around 3:00.) 3 vt (to make someone understand) wakatte morau: Hai, densha wa hachiji han ni deru koto ga, kare ni wakatte moratta. (Yes, I got through to him that the train leaves at 8:30.) 4 vt (to finish) oeru: Raishuu no suiyoubi made ni kono shigoto o oeru yotei da. (I plan to get through this job by Wednesday of next week.)

get together 1 vi (to assemble) atsumaru: Doyoubi no ban atsumarou yo. (Hey, let's get together Saturday night.) 2 vt atsumeru: Oya no kekkon kinenbi ni kazoku zenin o atsumeru yotei da. (I plan to get together the whole family on my parents' wedding anniversary.)

get up 1 vi (to get out of bed; to rise from a sitting position) okiru: Hayaku okinasai! (C'mon, get up!) 2 vt (to get someone else up) okosu: Ima kara ojii-san o okosu kara, tetsudatte ne. (I'm going to get Grandpa up now, so give me a hand, okay?)

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go after 1 vt (to chase) ou: Inu ga dete itta! Hayaku, otte choudai! (The dog got out! Hurry and go after him!)

go against 1 vt (to oppose) hankou suru: Boku wa nani o shiyou to shite mo, kare ga hankou suru. (He goes against whatever I try to do.)

go along 1 vi (to accompany) tsuite iku: Tsuite itte mo ii no? (Can I go along?) 2 vt (to agree) doui suru: Yoi keikaku ka dou ka mada wakaranai ga, ichiou doui shimasu. (I don't know yet whether or not it's a good plan, but I'll go along for the time being.)

go away 1 vi (to leave) saru: Ano norainu wa dokoka satte itta mitai. (It looks like that stray dog went away somewhere.) 2 vi (to vanish) nakunaru: Itami ga yatto nakunatta. (The pain finally went away.)

Note: When referring to people, nakunaru means "to die," so be careful when using it. For people, use mou inai / imasen (...is / are no longer here), or dokoka itta (...went somewhere).

go back 1 vi / vt modoru: Itsu o-kuni ni modorimasu ka. (When will you go back to your home country?)

Note: When talking to someone about their own country — as well as many other things — the honorific o prefix is often used.

go down 1 vi (to descend) oriru: Chikashitsu ni orimashou. (Let's go down to the basement.) 2 vi (to break down) kowareru: Pasokon wa kinou no gogo kowareta. (The computer went down yesterday afternoon.)

go off 1 vi (to leave) tachisaru: Kare wa sayonara mo iwazu ni tachisatta. (He went off without saying good-bye.) 2 vi (for food to spoil [British]) kusaru: Zannen nagara, niku ga kusatta. (Unfortunately, the meat has gone off.) 3 vi (for an alarm to ring) naru: Boku no mezamashidokei ga rokuji han ni natta. (My alarm clock went off at 6:30.) 4 vi (for electric lights to be extinguished) kieru: Denki ga mata kietara komaru. (I'll be at a loss if the lights go off again.) 5 vi (for fireworks or a bomb to explode) bakuhatsu suru: Natsu matsuri no yoru niwa, hanabi ga tsugitsugi in bakuhatsu shita. (Fireworks were going off one after another on the night of the summer festival.)

go on 1 vi (to continue) tsuzuku: Kono ame wa itsu made tsuzuku kana. (I wonder how long it will go on raining.) 2 vt (to continue) tsuzukeru: Kyuukei suru you ni itta ga, kanojo wa shigoto o tsuzuketa. (I told her to take a break, but she went on working.) 3 vi (to talk about) shaberitateru: Kanojo ni au tabi ni kodomo ni tsuite shaberitateru. (Whenever I meet her she goes on about her kids.) 4 vt (to take a trip) tabi ni deru: Kotoshi no natsu kanada made tabi ni deru yotei. (This summer I'm planning to go on a trip to Canada.)

go out 1 vi dekakeru: Konban dekakemasu. (I'm going out this evening.) 2 vi (for a light or fire to be extinguished) kieru (see go off above)

go over 1 vt (to climb/pass over) koeru: Inu wa hei o koete nigeta. (The dog went over the fence and got away.) 2 vt (to inspect machinery) tenken suru: Kuruma o kau mae ni tetteiteki ni tenken suru yo. (You can bet that I thoroughly go over cars before buying them.) 3 vt (to inspect documents) me o toosu: Kono shorui ni chotto me o tooshite itadakemasu ka. (Would you please look over these documents?)

go through 1 vt (to experience) keiken suru: Nido to sore o keiken shitakunai. (I don't ever want to go through that again.)

go too far 1 vi yarisugiru: Erika wa paatei o hiraku to, itsumo yarisugiru. (Whenever Erika throws a party, she always goes too far.)

go up 1 vi agaru: Ni kai e agatte kudasai. (Please go up to the second floor.)

go without 1 vt ...nashi de yatte iku: CD o wasureta node, konkai wa ongaku nashi de yatte iku shika nai. (I forgot my CDs, so we'll have to go without music this time.)

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hang about / hang around 1 vi / vt burabura suru: Kinou shoutengai de burabura shite jikan o tsubushita. (Yesterday I hung around the mall and killed time.)

Note: In case you didn't catch it, jikan o tsubusu is a handy idiom for "to waste / kill time."

hang back 1 vi (to hesitate) tamerau: Sore o teian shitakatta ga, doushite mo tameratte shimatta. (I wanted to suggest that, but hung back for some reason.)

hang in there / hang on 1 vi (to keep trying) ganbaru: Ato mou sukoshi. Ganbatte! (Only a little more. Hang in there!)

hang on 1 vi (to wait) matsu: Cindy ni sukoshi matsu you ni itte kureru? (Would you please tell Cindy to hang on just a bit?) 2 vt (to depend on) ...shidai: Umi ni iku ka dou ka wa, otenki shidai. (Whether we go to the beach or not hangs on the weather.) 3 vt (to listen carefully) chuui shite kiku: Gakusei wa Tanaka sensei no hanashi o chuui shite kiita. (The students hung on every word that Mr. Tanaka said.) 4 vt (to grasp) nigiru: Tesuri o shikkari nigitte yo! (Hang on to the handrail tightly!) 5 vt (to keep something) tebanasanai: Ano furui jitensha o suteyou to omotta ga, ima tebanasanai. (I thought of getting rid of that old bicycle, but now I want to hang on to it.)

Note: Tebanasanai is the negative form of the compound tebanasu, from te (hand) and hanasu (to release).

hang up 1 vt (to put up for display, etc.) kakeru: sono e o terebi no ue ni kakemashou. (Let's hang up that picture above the TV.) 2 vi / vt (to end a telephone conversation) denwa o kiru: Jaa, denwa o kiru. Mata ashita. (Well, I'm going to hang up. See you tomorrow.)

Note: Strangely (to us English speakers, anyway), the Japanese usually do not use sayonara or any other "good-bye"-like expression when ending a telephone call. Shitsurei shimasu (excuse me) is probably the most common, but relatives and friends often simply say kiru yo (I'm hanging up), but this is common and there is nothing rude about it.

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keep after 1 vt shitsukoku iu: Kare wa heya o souji suru you ni, shitsukoku iwanakereba naranai. (I have to keep after him to clean his room.)

keep ahead 1 vi sakinjiru: Ken wa itsumo doukyuusei yori sakinjiyou to shite iru. (Ken is always trying to keep ahead of his classmates.)

keep at 1 vt (to continue) tsuzukeru: Kanojo ni totte piano o narau no wa taihen deshita ga, kanojo ga tsuzukete imashita. (Learning the piano was hard for her, but she kept at it.)

keep away 1 vi / vt chikayoranai: Ano kodomo ni inu ni chikayoranai you ni iinasai. (Tell those kids to keep away from the dog.)

keep down 1 vt (to allay a problem) osaeru: Kono kusuri wa kayumi o osaeru. (This medicine will keep down the itching.)

keep from 1 vt (to avoid) shinaide iru: Gomen. Warawanaide irarenai. (Sorry. I can't keep from laughing.)

keep going 1 vi ganbaru: Taihen na shigoto da to wakatte imasu ga, owaru made ganbarinasai. (I know it's a tough job, but keep going until it's finished.)

keep off 1 vt (to quit or control the use of) hikaeru: Osake o hikaeta hou ga ii yo. (You had better keep off the booze.)

keep on 1 vt tsuzukeru: Yameru you ni iimashita ga, kare wa tabetsuzuketa. (I told him to stop, but he kept on eating.)

keep out 1 vi hairanai: Heya ni hairanaide kudasai. (Please keep out of the room.) 2 vt irenai: Shako ni karera o irenai you ni. (Keep them out of the garage.)

keep together 1 vi / vt issho ni iru: Kengakuchuu, issho ni ite kudasai. (Please keep together during the tour.)

keep to oneself 1 vi kousai shinai: Kanojo wa hotondo kousai shinai. (She pretty much keeps to herself.)

keep up 1 vi / vt (to continue) tsuzukeru: Nihongo no benkyou o tsuzukete yo. (Keep up your Japanese studies.) 2 vi (to maintain pace with) tsuite iku: Tokidoki tsuite ikenai you ni kanjiru. (Sometimes I feel that I just can't keep up.)

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look after 1 vt (to take care of) sewa o suru: Itsumo kodomo no sewa o shite, arigatou gozaimasu. (You're always looking after the kids. Thank you.)

Note: Sewa o suru is very flexible, and can be used for just about anything from a simple task to the full-time chore of caring for children or the elderly. The set phrase O-sewa ni narimasu! (You help me!) is often used as a greeting, even to the point of becoming meaningless. Another expression, mendou o miru, which has the same meaning, is not quite as flexible, being usually reserved for real acts of caring: children, animals, etc.

look all over 1 vi achikochi sagasu: Are o achikochi sagashite ita yo! (I tell you, I looked all over for that!)

Note: Achikochi is a very useful word meaning "here and there; all over; everywhere."

look as if 1 vt ...you ni mieru: Komatte iru you ni mieru. (You look as if you're confused.)

look back 1 vi furikaette miru: John wa arukinagara nankai mo furikaette mita. (John looked back again and again as he walked.)

look for 1 vt sagasu: Tebukuro o sagashita kedo, mitsukaranakatta. (I looked for the gloves, but couldn't find them.)

Note: As I've mentioned elsewhere, mitsukeru (vt) and its companion mitsukaru (vi) can really be a pain. In Japanese, mitsukeru is used for things found unlooked-for, by accident, while mitsukaru is used for things lost and looked for, whether found or not. So, if we translate the example above to be literally true to the Japanese, it would be: "I looked for the gloves, but they were not found."

look forward to 1 vt tanoshimi ni suru: Kondo no Hawaii no tabi o tanoshimi ni shite iru. (I'm looking forward to my upcoming trip to Hawaii.)

look into 1 vt (to look inside) naka o miru: Neko wa heya no naka o mite iru. (The cat is looking into the room.) 2 vt (to examine or verify) shiraberu: Ato de shirabete ageru. (I'll look into it for you later.)

look like 1 vt ...no you ni mieru: Kanojo wa watashi no itoko no you ni mieru. (She looks like my cousin.)

look out 1 vi chuui suru: Chuui shinasai! (Look out!)

look through 1 vt (to search or check) me o toosu: Honyaku ga dekiagarimashita node, jikan ga areba me o tooshite kudasai. (I've finished the translation, so please look through it when you have time.)

look up 1 vt (to search for something in reference books or on the internet, etc.) shiraberu: Ano kotoba o jisho de shirabemashou. (Let's look up that word in our dictionaries.) 2 vt (search for and visit a person) sagashite tazuneru: London ni iru aida, Jones-san o sagashite tazuneta. (While in London, I looked up Mr. Jones.)

look up to 1 vt (to respect) sonkei suru: Boku no nihongo no sensei o hontou ni sonkei shite imasu. (I really look up to my Japanese language teacher.)

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make do 1 vi ma ni au you ni suru: Tanonda kazu dewa nai ga, ma ni au you ni shimasu. (There aren't as many as I asked for, but I'll make do.)

make do without (see go without)

make it 1 vi (to get by) dounika yatte iku: Saisho wa kibishikatta kedo, dounika yatte itta. (At first it was tough, but I made it.) 2 vi (to be on time) ma ni au: Okureru ka to shinpai shita ga, ma ni atta. (I was afraid that I would be late, but I made it.)

make out 1 vt (to see; to discern) mieru: Bouenkyou de mitara, getsumen no kureetaa ga mieru. (If you look through a telescope, you can make out the moon's craters.) 2 vt (to understand) rikai suru: Sensei no itte iru koto o rikai suru koto ga dekinai. (I can't make out what the teacher is saying.)

make up 1 vt (to compensate) tsugunau: Kabin o watta koto o tsugunau tame ni, kare wa atarashii kabin to ooki na hanataba o katte kureta. (To make up for breaking the vase, he bought a new one and a big bouquet of flowers.) 2 vt (to lie) uso o tsuku: Jody wa shigoto ni tsuite uso o tsuita. (Jody made up what she said about her job.) 3 vt (to create) sakusei suru: Rainen no jugyou no tame ni atarashii kyouzai o sakusei shinakereba naranai. (I've got to make up new teaching materials for next year's classes.) 4 vi (to be reconciled) nakanaori suru: Ano futari wa senshuu oogenka shita ga, sono ato sugu nakanaori shita. (Those two had a big fight last week, but made up soon afterwards.)

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put aside 1 vt (to stop doing for the time being) waki ni oku: Jisho o waki ni oite, kyoukasho o dashinasai. (Put aside your dictionary and take out your textbook.)

put away 1 vt (to clear things away) katazukeru: Kono shokki o katazukemashou. (Let's put away these dishes.) 2 vt (to save money) chokin suru: Dekiru dake chokin shinasai. (Put away as much money as you can.)

put back 1 vt (to return) modosu: Ima sugu modoshinasai. (Put that back right now!)

put down 1 vt (to set down) orosu: Sore o koko ni oroshite kudasai. (Please put that down here.)

put in 1 vt (to place inside) ireru: Hako ni hon o irete kudasai. (Please put the books in the box.) 2 vt (to spend time or money on) tsukau: Anata wa kore ni takusan no jikan o tsukatta deshou. (I'll bet you put a lot of time into this.)

put off 1 vt (to reschedule for a later date) enki suru: Ryokou wa aki made enki shimashita. (We put off the trip until fall.) 2 vt (to make wait) mataseru: Matasenaide kudasai. (Please don't put me off.)

put on 1 vt (to wear) kiru: Chotto samui. Jaketto o kita hou ga ii. (It's a little cold. You had better put on a jacket.) 2 vt (to gain weight) futoru: Futoru no wa itsudemo kantan da. (Putting on weight is always easy.) 3 vt (to deceive) damasu: Uso yarou. Damashite wa ikenai yo. (Come on. Don't put me on.) 4 vt (to play music) kakeru: Kono atarashii jazu CD o kakete ne. (Put on this new jazz CD, okay?) 5 vt (to put over heat to cook) hi ni kakeru: Kono jagaimo o hi ni kakemashou. (Let's put these potatoes on.)

Note: To put on clothing requires various different verbs in Japanese: shatsu o kiru (to put on a shirt); boushi o kaburu (to put on a hat); nekkutai o shimeru (to put on a tie); zubon o haku (to put on pants); megane o kakeru (to put on glasses); yubiwa o hameru (to put on a ring). Those are the most common ones.

put out 1 vt (to place outside) dasu: Inu o dashite choudai. (Please put the dog out.) 2 vt (to extinguish) kesu: Hi o keshite, hai ni suna o kakenasai. (Put the fire out, then cover the ashes with sand.) 3 vt (to annoy) meiwaku o kakeru: Go-meiwaku o kakete, gomen nasai. (I'm sorry for putting you out.) 4 vt (to make efforts) doryoku suru: Karera wa hontou ni doryoku shita koto o shitte iru yo. (I know they really put out their best efforts.) 5 vt (to produce) seisan suru: Ano kouba wa mainichi yaku gohyaku nijuu dai no jidousha o seisan shite iru. (That factory puts out around 520 cars per day.)

Note: Meiwaku o kakeru is a very polite set phrase and is usually used with the honorific go prefix added to meiwaku.

put through 1 vt (to cause to endure) keiken saseru: Kyonen kare wa kanojo ni iroiro keiken saseta. (He really put her through a lot last year.)

put together 1 vt (to assemble) kumitateru: Bill wa gareeji no naka de jitensha o kumitatete imasu. (Bill is in the garage putting together his bicycle.)

put up 1 vt (to fix in a relatively high location; to attach to a wall or ceiling) kakeru: Ano tokei o kabe ni kakete kudasai. (Please put that clock up on the wall.) 2 vt (to build a structure) tateru: Atarashii shoppingu sentaa wa ni san ka getsu dake de taterareta. (The new shopping center was put up in just a few months.) 3 vi (to stay at) tomaru: Satogaeri shitara oya no ie de tomaru. (When I go back to my home town, I'll put up at my parents' house.) 4 vt (to provide a place to stay) tomeru: Asobi ni koretara tomete ageru yo. (If you can visit, I'll put you up.)

Note: There are various Japanese verbs used to convey "to set / put up": Kurisumasu tsurii o kazaru (to put up a Christmas tree); tento o haru (to put up a tent); kasa o sasu (to put up an umbrella), etc.

put up with 1 vt (to endure) gaman suru: Ureshii! Ano furui reizouko o mou gaman shinakutemo ii kara. (I'm so happy because I won't have to put up with that old refrigerator anymore!)

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show off 1 vi / vt misebirakasu: Kenta wa itsumo misebirakashite iru ne. (Kenta is always showing off, isn't he?)

show around 1 vi / vt annai suru: Tokyo ni kitara annai shite ageru yo. (When you come to Tokyo I'll show you around.)

show up 1 vt (to embarrass) hazukashii omoi o saseru: Kare wa itsumo douryou ni hazukashii omoi o saseyou to shite iru. (He is always trying to show up his colleagues.)

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take after 1 vt (resemble) niru: Kare wa kare no ojii-san ni nitte iru. (He takes after his grandfather.)

take apart 1 vt bunkai suru: Kore o bunkai shite katazukete kudasai. (Please take it apart and put it away.)

take away 1 vt torisaru: Kare wa senshuu no shuumatsu, sore zenbu torisatta. (He took it all away last weekend.)

take back 1 vt torimodosu: Kanojo wa zasshi o torimodoshita. (She took the magazine back.) 2 vt (to apologize for something said) torikesu: Gomen! Yutta koto o torikesu. Honki de nai yo! (I'm sorry! I take back what I said. I really didn't mean it!)

take down 1 vt (to lower something) orosu: Kanojo wa nichibotsu mae ni kokki o oroshita. (She took down the flag before sunset.) 2 vt (to write down) kakitomeru: Shizu wa sensei no yutta koto no subete o kakitometa. (Shizu took down everything the teacher said.)

Note: Kokki is a country's national flag. Just "a flag" in general is hata.

take it easy 1 vi kiraku ni suru: Kiraku ni shite kudasai. (Please take it easy.)

take it out on 1 vt yatsuatari suru: Kare wa itsumo jibun no shippai o boku ni yatsuatari suru. (He always takes out his failures on me.)

take off 1 vt (to remove clothing or accessories) nugu: Boushi o nuide kudasai. (Please take off your hat.) 2 vi (to leave) deru: Rokuji han goro demashou, ne. (Let's take off around 6:30, okay?) 3 vi (for an aircraft to leave the ground) ririku suru: Hikouki wa hachiji juugo fun ni ririku shita. (The plane took off at 8:15.)

take on 1 vt (to accept as an assignment) hikiukeru: Ima watashi wa atarashii shigoto o hikiukerenai. (I cannot take on any new projects now.)

take out 1 vt dasu: Gomi o dashite kureru? (Would you please take out the trash?)

take over 1 vi / vt (to carry on a responsibility in place of someone else) hikitsugu: Iketani wa boku no kawari ni kono shigoto o hikitsuide kureru. (Iketani will take over this job for me.)

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tell apart 1 vt shikibetsu suru: Kono nidai no pasukon wa onaji moderu da to omou. Shikibetsu suru koto ga dekimasu ka. (I think that both of these computers are the same model. Can you tell them apart?)

tell off 1 vt (to scold) shikaru: Kare wa amarinimo shitsurei datta node, kanojo ga shikatta. (She told him off for being so rude.)

tell on 1 vt tsugeguchi suru: Kanojo wa boku no koto o itsumo tsugeguchi shite iru. (She is always telling on me.)

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turn around 1 vi mawaru: Skeeto o shite iru onna no ko wa kurukuru mawatte iru. (The girl skating is turning around and around.) 2 vt mawasu: Sono tsukue o mawashite kudasai. (Please turn that desk around.)

turn down 1 vt (to decrease the volume of sound) oto o chiisaku suru: Terebi no oto o chiisaku shite ne. (Turn down the TV, okay?) 2 vt (to decrease the flow of water, etc.; to decrease the amount of heat or air conditioning) yowaku suru: Mizu no de o yowaku shite kureru? (Would you turn down the water?) 3 vt (to reject a person or thing) kotowaru: Boku no teian o kotowaranaide kudasai. (Please don't turn down my suggestion.)

turn in 1 vt (to hand in) teishutsu suru: Shorui o kinyuu shi, suiyoubi made ni teishutsu shinasai. (Fill out the documents and turn them in by Wednesday.)

turn inside out 1 vt uragaesu: Mite. Kono boushi o uragaesu koto ga dekiru yo. (Look. You can turn this hat inside out.)

turn loose 1 vt (to release) hanasu: Kouen de inu o hanashite wa ikenai. (Don't turn your dog loose in the park.)

turn off 1 vt kesu: Heya no denki o keshita? (Did you turn off the lights in the room?)

turn on 1 vt tsukeru: Terebi o tsukenaide kudasai. (Please don't turn on the TV.)

turn out 1 vi (to result in becoming) ...to naru: Kanojo wa rippa na sensei to naru deshou. (I'm sure she'll turn out to be a fine teacher.) 2 vt (to produce) seisan suru: Yaku hyaku nen kan jidousha o seisan shite kita. (They have been turning out cars for almost 100 years.)

turn over 1 vt hikkurikaesu: Hotto keeki o hikkurikaeshite kureru? (Would you turn over the pancakes?) 2 vi hikkurikaeru: Katte ni hikkurikaetta. (It turned over on its own.) 3 vi (to turn over in one's sleep) negaeri o utsu: Toshi o toru to, dandan negaeri o utanakunaru. (As we grow older, we turn over in our sleep less.)

turn up 1 vt (to increase the volume of sound) oto o ookiku suru: Ongaku no oto o ookiku shite kureru? (Would you please turn up the music?) 2 vt (to increase the flow of water, etc.; to increase the amount of heat or air conditioning) tsuyoku suru: Danbou o tsuyoku shinaide kudasai. (Please don't turn up the heater.) 3 vi (for something to be found) dete kuru: Shinpai shinaide. Dete kuru deshou. (Don't worry. It'll turn up.)

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wear off 1 vi shidai ni nakunaru: Chotto nemuke ga sasu kamo shiremasen ga, shidai ni nakunaru. (You may feel drowsy, but it will wear off.)

Note: Nakunaru alone means "to cease to exist." Shidai ni or an equivalent is necessary to convey the fact that it will be gradual.

wear out / wear down 1 vt (to wear something out) tsukai furusu: Kyonen katta jitensha o mou tsukai furushita. (I've already worn out the bicycle I bought last year.) 2 vt (to wear someone out) tsukaresaseru: Kim o haikingu ni tsurete itte, tsukaresasemashita. (I took Kim hiking and wore her out.)

Note: Tsukai furusu is mainly for things besides clothing: tools, appliances, etc. For clothing, since there are several different verbs for "to wear on the body," the correct one will have to be used with furusu: ki furusu (to wear out a shirt, jacket, suit, etc.); haki furusu (to wear out pants, shoes, etc.), etc.

wear well 1 vi mochi ga ii: Kono kutsu wa mochi ga ii. (These shoes wear well.)

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work loose 1 vi yurumu: Kono neji ga itsumo yurumu. (This screw is always working loose.) 2 vt yurumeru: Yurumeru koto ga dekiru to omou? (Do you think you can work it loose?)

work off 1 vt (to gradually decrease) torinozoku: Kono zeiniku o dandan torinozokanakucha. (I've got to work off this flab.) 2 vt (to work in order to pay back a loan) hataraite kaesu: Juugatsu no getsumatsu made ni hataraite, kono shakin o kaesu tsumori da. (I plan to work off this loan by the end of October.)

Note: There really isn't a simple word to convey the gradual "working off" of something in Japanese. Torinozoku actually means "to remove" and can be used concerning something to be removed instantly. To convey the fact that it will take time, something for "gradually" will be needed, like dandan, sukoshi zutsu, shidai ni, etc.

Note: -nakucha is an informal contraction for nakereba naranai.

work on 1 vt (to focus on solving a specific problem) torikumu: Ohiru o tabetara ano mondai o torikumu yotei. (I plan to work on that problem after lunch.)

work out 1 vi (to exercise) undou suru: Mainichi undou suru no ga daiji. (It's important to work out every day.) 2 vt (to solve a problem) kaiketsu suru: Sono mondai o yatto kaiketsu shita. (We finally worked out that problem.)

work over 1 vt (to give someone a hard time) hidoi me ni awaseru: Kanojo wa hontou ni kare ni hidoi me ni awaseta, ne. (She really worked him over, didn't she?)

work toward 1 vt ...ni mukete doryoku suru: Tom wa Nihongo Nouryoku Shiken Ni Kyuu ni mukete doryoku shite imasu. (Tom is working toward passing Level 2 of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test.)

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write back 1 vi henji o kaku: Bob oji-san ni henji o kaku. (I'll write back to Uncle Bob.)

write down 1 vt kakitomeru: Kono jusho o kakitomenasai. (Write down this address.)

write in 1 vt (to write on a line or designated space) kakikomu: Douzo, koko ni onamae o kakikonde kudasai. (Please write in your name here.)

write out 1 vt (to write in detail) kuwashiku kaku: Onamae, jusho, denwa bangou o kuwashiku kaite kudasai. (Please write out your name, address, and telephone number.)

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